© Modesto Corderi Novoa
Presentation and Summary
Traditionally there have been several different methodologies to teach foreign languages, such as the Translation Method, the Behavioral models (Skinner, 1988), etc. These methodologies are based on memorization and repetition, usually asking students to translate English into Spanish and vice versa. Therefore, there is a lack of communicative abilities in this learning process. However, other learning theories, such as The Interaction Hypothesis (IH) (Long, 1996) and Sociocultural Theory (SCT) (Vygotsky, 1978). The IH states that interaction is key to promote students to learn a foreign language. In addition, SCT declares that language is socially co-constructed, and creating social interaction opportunities is beneficial. Both IH and SCT support the use of drama in the language classroom.
This Didactic Unit is designed for “4 ESO”, the fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in the Spanish education system, and it is scheduled to last for the whole year. The stress of this didactic unit will be on speaking, but also, there will be listening, reading, and writing activities included. The main goal is to motivate the students by providing them with an opportunity where they can use the language in a context. There are several types of drama activities that can be combined and used in the classroom depending on the situation: role-play, interactive games, improvisation theater games, etc
Keywords: English as a foreign language, drama for education, speaking skills, DBI, 4 ESO, syllabus.
Presentación y resumen
Tradicionalmente ha habido varias metodologías diferentes para la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, como el Método de Traducción, los Modelos de Comportamiento (Skinner, 1988), etc. Estas metodologías se basan en la memorización y la repetición, donde generalmente los estudiantes se ven obligados a traducir del inglés a español y viceversa. Por lo tanto, en estos métodos no se emplean las habilidades comunicativas. Sin embargo, existen otras teorías del aprendizaje, como La Hipótesis de Interacción (The Interaction Hypothesis – IH) (Long, 1996) y la Teoría Sociocultural (Sociocultural Theory – SCT) (Vygotsky, 1978). La teoría IH establece que la interacción es clave para promover que los estudiantes aprendan una lengua extranjera. Además, la teoría SCT declara que el lenguaje se construye socialmente y que crear oportunidades de interacción social es beneficioso para el aprendizaje. Tanto la IH como SCT justifican el uso del teatro en el aula de idiomas.
Esta Unidad Didáctica está diseñada para 4º de ESO, el cuarto curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria en el sistema educativo español, y está previsto que tenga una duración de todo el curso. El énfasis de esta unidad didáctica está en las habilidades orales, pero también se incluirán actividades de escuchar, leer y escribir. El objetivo principal es motivar a los estudiantes brindándoles una oportunidad en la que puedan usar el idioma en un contexto. Hay varios tipos de actividades teatrales que se pueden combinar y utilizar en el aula según la situación: juegos de rol, juegos interactivos, juegos de teatro de improvisación, etc.
Palabras clave: inglés como lengua extranjera, teatro en educación, habilidades orales, DBI, 4º ESO, plan de estudios.
This Syllabus is designed for “4 ESO”, the fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in the Spanish education system and it is scheduled to last for the whole year. The stress will be on speaking, but also there will be listening, reading and writing activities included. The main goal is to motivate the students by providing them with an opportunity where they can use the language in a context. There are several types of activities that can be combined and used in the classroom depending on the situation: role-play, interactive games, improvisation theater games, etc.
This work is the result of my period as an assistant English teacher at Colegio Quiñones de León in Vigo, Spain, in 2017. I observed that students lack motivation, and were focused on reading, writing, learning grammar rules and lists of vocabulary words. Students are stressed out and worry too much about the exams. The system is designed for memorization and students study just to pass the exam, and not to learn. In this unit design, I wanted to create a more interactive and engaging methodology and that is why I added some role-play and other activities to the units. Learning is a lifelong process that never stops. I do hope that this syllabus helps students´ creativity to run free.
Drama activities in the classroom enable students to use the language within a communicative situation, setting, and topic. What is more important, the language is used in a specific context, which also has a communicative purpose. According to Larsen-Freeman (1990), drama techniques are based on the Communicative Approach.
Willis and Willis (2007) proposed Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) and learning. Teaching practices should not focus on teaching language in neat blocks; instead, learners should do tasks in the foreign language taught. Drama techniques, such as role-play, improvisational games, simulations, etc., can be seen as tasks that imitate real-world situations that require the learner to use real language to complete them.
Broadly speaking, the proposal for language learning using “Task-Based Teaching” by Willis and Willis’ (2007), states that teachers should not only focus on form, but mostly on meaning. The task motivates the student by giving them a real context to produce the language. By using drama techniques, we are creating meaningful situations where students interact and focus on using meaningful contexts to better engage learners.
Bloom (1956), with collaborators Englehart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwoh, published a framework for categorizing educational goals. These were: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Bloom’s taxonomy skills are organized into different categories, starting with “remember”, then “understand”, “apply”, “analyze,” and finally “evaluate” and “create”.
Anderson and Krathwoh (2001) published a revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy. There were now six cognitive processes (see Table 1 below) and four types of knowledge: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. The authors of the revised taxonomy used verbs to label their categories and subcategories instead of the nouns of the original taxonomy from 1956. These “action words” describe the cognitive processes by which thinkers encounter and work with knowledge.
Table of contents
1.3 Legal Framework
2.1 General objectives of the cycle
2.2 Specific objectives of the subject
3. Basic competences
3.1 Learning outcomes
3.2 Assessment criteria
4.2 Classification: content, procedures, and attitudes.
5. Didactic Units
5.2 Time distribution
7.1 Assessment criteria
7.2 Assessment Tools
7.3 Types of assessment
7.4 Grading criteria
7.5 Additional Assessment Activities
7.6 Assessment of the teaching and learning process
8. Attention to Diversity
9. Use of IT (Information Technology)
12. Bibliographical references
APPENDIX Lesson Plan for Unit 2